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Matching The Steelhead Hatch

Matching The Steelhead Hatch
his Muskegon spring steelhead took a small, dark nymph during a heavy hatch of Little Black Stoneflies (Allocapnia). Steelhead can become selective to the profile, size, and color of specific food items, and your knowledge of the local vertebrate and invertebrate prey is invaluable. Photo: Matt Supinski

The Great Lakes is the "Russian front" for meteorologists. Inaccurate forecasters are shipped there for punishment. Mention Buffalo, Cleveland, or Grand Rapids to a weather anchor and they break out in a cold sweat. It's a Gulag where a weather forecaster is almost always wrong, and endlessly apologizing for it.

One March afternoon I was guiding clients for steelhead on Michigan's Muskegon River in an unusual heat wave that approached 90 F. The heat brought out a gray blizzard of little black egg-laying female stoneflies (Allocapnia sp.) at the peak of the sunny afternoon. Resident trout, yearling steelhead, and salmon parr and fingerlings were in frenzy as they catapulted in the air in spring's first feeding orgy.

We sat in my jet boat during lunch and watched the surface-feeding display. "Did you just see that huge boil on the surface?" my guest mumbled as he attempted to chew on his teriyaki pork loin. "Oh my gosh, again!"

A male steelhead with red cheeks was feeding on egg-laying stoneflies. Even though there were good brown trout also creating a surface ruckus, the steelhead's crimson sides gave it away. And the very next steelhead we landed regurgitated several small black stonefly nymphs as I unhooked it.


Hatch-oriented steelhead rarely expose themselves in these types of surface-feeding displays, or during subsurface feeding on the biological drift, where Great Lakes steelhead have proven to behave like resident stream trout, and selectively key in on specific food items.


Whether it's drop-back steelhead feasting on Hexagenias in the Pere Marquette river, or a big silver-and-gray predator hunting down midge pupae in the cold beach waters in an onshore temperature inversion, matching the hatch for Great Lakes steelhead is critical for success.

Early Lessons

The West Coast swinging tradition has taken the Great Lakes by storm. Many steelheaders are picking up two-handed rods, swinging Intruders, and enjoying the process to the point that they refuse to fish any other way.

As a lover of the two-handed swing myself, it's an exhilarating way to pique the predatory instinct of a steelhead intent on destroying your fly. However, conditions perfect for the swing don't last very long in the cold weather of the Great Lakes region. Unlike the West Coast, where ideal water temperatures are prolonged by warm Pacific currents, winter in the Great Lakes comes early.


Despite the cold water temperatures, the potamodromous freshwater migration of Great Lakes steelhead does not obstruct their impulse to feed. Ocean-raised steelhead undergo a physical change to move from salt water into the rivers and this may explain their relative lack of appetite. Couple this with the fertile and diverse ecosystems of the Great Lakes tributaries, and you end up with inquisitive steelhead acting like feeding rainbow trout.

The first published account of steelhead selectively feeding on riverine ecosystem food sources appeared in the Fly Fisherman article "Steelhead on the Grab" (Feb. 1991) by Dick Pobst. The Johnson brothers—both guides on the Pere Marquette—and Pobst examined stomach samples of steelhead and found evidence of selective feeding upon caddis, mayfly nymphs, eggs, and baitfish at different times of the year. The steelhead had seasonal preferences, and trout anglers who were used to "matching the hatch" soon reaped dividends by creating flies that mimicked what was going on in nature.

Two-handed swinging has been a boon to tackle sales, but from a practical angling standpoint, matching the hatch using "trout" techniques and tackle is more consistently effective. The beauty is that we have choices allowing us catch steelhead using the entire spectrum: nymph, swing, streamers, and even drys. The versatility of the Great Lakes is what makes the steelhead experience here something to be proud of.


Photo: Jeff Simpson

Masking "Hatches"

Matching a hatch when only one type of insect is on the water is relatively easy. It is when several insects are on the water at the same time that things get difficult.

For instance, you think the trout are taking the large, white Ephoron mayflies you see on the water, but they are actually feeding exclusively on size 24 midges. You have to experiment to find out what they are really feeding on.

Fall steelheading also has similar scenarios when steelhead are obviously feeding downstream from spawning salmon and brown trout. I have pulled my hair out in frustration after sight-fishing with perfect egg imitations, in an obvious egg situation, only to get refusals. When I switched to a Shaggy Rock Worm Caddis as a last-ditch effort, it was instantly "game on!"

What I hadn't considered was that the female salmon upstream was kicking up gravel with her tail, and she was dislodging caddis larvae. So the steelhead downstream could pick and choose like a Delaware brown during a mixed Sulphur and Blue-winged Olive hatch.

A similar masking hatch often occurs in the spring when female steelhead are digging redds in the riffles. Even though other steelhead and trout lie downstream, and at some point will consume an egg smorgasbord, the digging steelhead are dislodging both stonefly and mayfly nymphs. A Pheasant-tail Nymph in this situation is deadly.

And when you're swinging bright, flashy Intruders in the fall, don't forget that the rivers are loaded with chubs and dace from the warm summer. So use some barred-olive color schemes in your fly creations to match the shoreline minnow hatch, or try swinging a Steelhead Soft Hackle for a more natural presentation.

Little Black Stoneflies are often the first aquatic insect hatch of the spring on many Great Lakes tributaries. While steelhead only rarely feed on adults at the surface, the small dark nymphs are a common food source. Photo: John Miller

Presenting the Fly

Great Lakes steelheaders have been called "chuck-and-duckers," a stigma which in most cases is undeserved. Chuck-and-duck is a term used for those who use heavy lead with running line to get their flies down deep. Some crude setups eschew fly line completely and use only heavy monofilament or Amnesia to cut through the current and get their flies deep.

While some purists insist the only ethical way to catch a steelhead is by swinging a fly, there is an art to steelhead hatch matching no matter what rod and line combination you use. And because of the new switch rods that are becoming so popular, it has never been easier to switch from swinging, nymphing, to streamers in a heartbeat.

With the new switch and Scandinavian lines on the market, you can use T-14 (and up) sinking heads or buoyant strike indicators and get down to whatever depth the fish are at. There's really no need to engage in any kind of chuck-and-duck.

I have come up with a method called "swing chucking." Using a RIO Aqualux clear WF5 line on a 7- or 8-weight switch rod, I cast two-handed and use a water haul to load the rod. The stealth of the clear line is amazing in clear water, and I can use a sliding tungsten weight or short section of T-20 to get my flies deep. After the cast, I hold the rod butt against my chest to both swing and drift the flies by pumping the rod up and down to produce slack. This often elicits aggressive strikes from bored steelhead that won't react to constantly dead-drifted flies.

When salmon are digging redds, it's a common assumption that steelhead downstream are feeding on eggs, but in many instances the salmon aren't actually dropping eggs yet, and the steelhead are actually feeding on green caddis larvae (pictured) or stonefly and mayfly nymphs stirred up in the digging process. Photo: John Miller

Finally and most important, get to know your river's primary vertebrate and invertebrate food forms. Upturn rocks, use a stomach pump on the fish you catch, and really see what's down there in the biological drift the steelhead experience every day.

Make a fact-finding trip to your favorite steelhead river during the summer when the water is low, and take note of the pools, holding lies, and drop-offs, and while you're there, you can seine the river for prey clues. This will help you tie the right flies for the upcoming steelhead season, and put you one step ahead in the chess game we call matching the hatch.

Matthew Supinski is owner of Gray Drake Outfitters in Michigan. He is the author of Steelhead Dreams: 10-Year Anniversary (Frank Amato Books, 2013) and Selectivity: The Theory and Method to Fly Fishing for Fussy Trout, Steelhead, and Atlantic Salmon (Stackpole Books, 2014).

Cabela's CGT

It would be an understatement to say fiberglass rods are making a comeback. The advantages of glass are that it is less brittle than graphite, and more flexible, making it a logical choice for situations when you want to feel the rod load in close quarters.
Cabela's CGT fiberglass rods ($150) are a great lesson on why fiberglass rods were (and are) so fun to fish. Available in line weights 2- through 5- and lengths of 5'9" through 7'6", the swing weight is surprisingly light, and the rods bend deeply for close work where the trout rise right in front of you, and dare you to catch them. More important, when you catch a trout — even a small one — you actually feel the fish down into the cork. Let's face it, while today's modern casting miracles may help you cast across a river, they take some of the fun out of playing a small or even average fish. Click Here to View Product!

Cabela's Guidewear Boa Boots

Forget about how easy it is to ratchet these boots tight. Ignore the fact that in wet, icy conditions you won't have to tie your laces again and again with wet, numb fingers.
Disregard the fact that the stainless steel cables are much stronger and more durable than laces, and tighten evenly from the ankles down to the toes. While all these things are great, the thing our tester loved the most about Cabela's new Guidewear Boa Boots ($160) is how easy it is to get out of them. 'After a long, tiring day of hiking and wading the last thing I wanted to do was bend over and fight with wet, knotted laces to get my boots off. With the Boa system I just pull the dial, and the cables release all the way down to the toes so you can quickly and easily step out of the boots. ' Click Here to View Product!

G.Loomis NRX Lite Presentation

It's important to keep in mind that the NRX brand identifies a set of technologies, graphite, and resin, but it doesn't describe a specific rod action or taper, as G.Loomis director of engineering Steve Rajeff makes NRX rods for uses as diverse as tarpon fishing and bass popping bugs. NRX Lite Presentation ($720-$755) uses the same 3M Matrix Resin, high-density graphite, and hardware as other freshwater NRX rods, but the design of the rod — the wall thicknesses throughout the taper of the rod — is completely different to address the task of dry-fly fishing with small flies and light tippets. We used the 9-foot, 5-weight NRX LP side-by-side with a regular NRX and while the cosmetics made them look nearly identical, the performance is markedly different. 'The LP loads much better with shorter line lengths, and because the rod is actually loading, it tracks straighter and is more accurate at close range, ' said our tester. 'While it is a smooth, accurate dry-fly rod with a 'slower' feel, the LP still has enough versatility where I feel like I could still use a Stimulator and a beadhead dropper on a headwater stream, and still have fun with it. ' The rods are available in 3-, 4-, and 5-weight models from 7'6" to 9". Click Here to View Product!

Revo Harness

Revo's new Shallow Water Lens is a light polycarbonate with a bronze tint and green mirrored exterior. We tested the new lens while Eastern trout fishing and West Coast steelheading, and found the bronze tint amplifies contrasting colors in the water, making it easier to see bottom structure (and fish) than Revo's neutral gray Water Lens. Harness ($170) frames have removable side shields, a close-to-the-face fit to reduce side glare, and a removable floatable buoy for your boating and wading adventures. Click Here to View Product!

Sage 6-Piece Spey

In the Fly Fisherman 2013 Gear Guide the ONE was named as the 'best new Spey series, ' and just a few months later Sage made it even better by creating 6-piece Spey rods with the same Konnetic Technology and cosmetics as the rest of the series.
The two travel-friendly Spey rods are a 13-foot 7-weight and a 14-foot 9-weight ([imo-slideshow gallery=156],200-[imo-slideshow gallery=156],275) that break down into 26- and 28-inch sections. In comparison, a standard 9-foot rod breaks down into four 27-inch sections.
Rod designer Jerry Siem's goal was to create a more packable travel Spey rod without compromising the light weight, tracking, and sensitivity of the original ONE series, and we think he's done it. We used the rods in British Columbia for steelhead and chrome Chinooks on the lower Dean River. The 9-weight was light enough to cast all day with heavy flies, and still had the power to lever angry salmon into the shallows. Click Here to View Product!

Sage CIRCA

We've written about this rod before, but any discussion of slow-action rods would be incomplete without a fresh re-evaluation of Sage's technology-laden tip-of-the-hat to the bamboo rods of yesteryear.
Sage practically coined the phrase 'fast-action rod ' and now the CIRCA ($745-$775) redefines what a slow-action graphite rod feels like, but maybe we should just throw the words 'slow ' and 'fast ' out the window.
What's really going on here is that rod designer Jerry Siem has used Konnetic Technology to build a slim graphite blank that bends more deeply, and more easily than any other graphite rod on the market. The deeper it bends, the more time it takes for the rod to also unbend (or unload), and that's where the speed descriptors come it. With this rod, good things truly come to those who wait, and you'll want to slow down your timing considerably. You'll need to change your expectations as well.
'The CIRCA does one thing very well, and that's deliver small flies at short distances in (hopefully) calm conditions, ' said our tester. 'It's a 'gentleman's rod' in that you'll have to wait for the trout to meet you for a duel at an appointed hour, at 10 paces. You certainly aren't going to go out and hunt them down if they decide they don't want to play your game. ' Click Here to View Product!

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